Internal heat gain = electrical equipment and residents of the house give off the heat in the building. Heat gain from electricity is almost equal to the electricity usage in a building or zone. The average use of the electricity in American house is 11,000 kWh/yr. Some examples are microwave, computer laptop, coffee maker, TV and refrigerator. The best ways to manage or reduce internal heat are first change our equipments to more efficient product (energy star product), second reduce the use when it is not necessarily and the third use ceiling fans or indoor air motion in hit days of summer instead of air conditioning.
Conventional heating = since the conventional heating truly can save amount of energy and money for people the best way to reduce the energy consumption is check the existing heating system and ensure that the system works accurate. If not, consider purchasing a high efficiency model since they would help to reduce energy costs as well as conserve our natural resources. As the software recommended us for some area like Los Angeles, design a garage or storage space on the side of the building facing the coldest wind could help insulate.
Passive solar direct gain low mass and high mass = for passive solar gain main thing is help the building to gain more solar power and keep the heat inside. Material of the building would make a big difference in keeping heat. Accurate insulation for the floor and wall can keep the heat inside during the winter. As it is recommended on the program it is better to face most of the glass area south to maximize winter sun contacts but design some overhangs or sun shade to completely shade glass area in the summer time. Also it is better to not be planted trees in front of passive solar windows.
Sun shading = Sun shading is really important for Los Angeles area since they need maximum sun shading for winter and minimum sun shading for summer. So each season has a different approach to it. As mentioned on the top create some overhangs to completely shade glass area in the summer time help the house to keep the energy inside the building. In some windy climate sun shading can protect the house from the wind as well as sun.
Comfort = Comfort in the building deign need to consider as well. By design the Sunny wind-protected outdoor spaces we can reduce the energy waste in colder area. In addition, in some climate area like LA square footage of the building is important. When floor area is smaller the amount of the waste by heating and cooling energy is less as well.